The Internet of Things (IoT) is currently trending with its ever expanding eco-system of digital sensors, appliances and wearable smart devices. Like other sectors, the role of IoT in sustainable development and environment protection will be crucial in the coming years.
Environmental degradation is occurring all over the world. Land degradation, deforestation and desertification pose a growing threat to food security and water availability. Widespread loss of biological diversity is undermining the productive capacity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This reduces access to essential environmental goods and services, including vital ecological processes such as water purification, nutrient cycling, control of pollution and soil erosion. Environmental degradation exacerbates the frequency and impact of droughts, floods, forest fires and other natural hazards.
Let us explore how IoT is making a positive impact on sustainable development across different sectors.
1. 水资源管理（Water Management）
IoT enables understanding of changes in water quality of a particular reservoir. The connection of different sensors and monitoring systems help in providing the water level and flood warnings as well as foresee other disasters such as earthquakes and potential landslides in prone areas, assisting the civilians and authorities to take drastic action on such issues.
Smart and adaptive irrigation and agriculture systems in which the soil water content and nutrients are continuously tracked and appropriate actions are taken on the reported deficiency or damage are also gaining huge popularity among the farming communities.
IoT also allow real time detection of animals. In case of any disease outbreaks, it will be useful for control, survey and prevention of such scenarios. For this, the livestock would be fitted with special chips (RFID) and readers would for placed in the designated monitoring spots.
Applications like eBird helps the scientists in keeping tracks of birds as well as their habits and migration patterns. Systems that triggers alert on uncontrolled deforestation and potential wildfires can also help the respective authorities to protect and maintain the forests and its inhabitants.
像 eBird 这样的应用程序，能够帮助科学家们跟踪鸟类并观察它们的习性和迁徙规律。对不受控制的森林砍伐和潜在野火发出警报的系统也可以帮助相关当局保护和维护森林及其居民。
4. 海洋生物（Marine Organisms）
Overfishing and over- exploitation of aquatic diversity is endangering high-value species like salmon and cod. ThisFish, an internet tracking network in association with local bodies help to trace back the fish to the fisherman who caught it and the location through GPS readings and toll data. In this way bad fishing behaviors can be detected and stopped.
过度捕捞和过度开发水生多样性正在危及鲑鱼和鳕鱼等高价值物种。ThisFish 是一个与当地机构合作的互联网跟踪网络，有助于通过 GPS 读数和通行费数据将这条鱼追溯到捕获它的渔民和位置。通过这种方式，可以检测并阻止不良的捕鱼行为。
FishPal provides reports on the type and quantity of fishes caught on a daily and monthly that can be checked by the fisheries department and also informs suspicious fishing activities.
Those who dismissed smart home technology as unrealistic playthings for lazy youngsters are increasingly finding it hard to resist the charms of IoT-powered smart home devices. These devices will become hugely popular in the coming years as they become highly intuitive and innovative, extending to not just home automation comfort but also home security and the safety of your family. That is the kind of home sustainability that will keep the power consumption in check and make optimal use of renewable energy.
Even smart workplaces with Green Design are contributing highly towards energy conservation. With maximum use of daylight, rainwater capture, smart cooling and ventilation systems, solar power etc ensure maximum efficiency in power use and full utilization to renewable sources.
即使 Green Design 智能工作场所是高度促进实现节能减排。具有最大利用日光，雨水捕获，智能冷却和通风系统，太阳能发电等确保在电源使用最高的效率和充分利用，可再生能源。
6. 固废管理（Waste Management）
One of the major issues faced in the urban areas is the inefficient waste management. Improper disposal of waste can cause various health hazards and affect the surrounding air and water. The machine-to-machine or machine-to-man (M2M) systems can be established for a much intelligent division and disposal of waste. The trash cans or the dumpsters can have built-in sensors to measure the amount of trash. Once the trash is full, the signal transceiver sends a message to the central command centre via internet or satellite with the GPS location and the IP address.
城市地区面临的主要问题之一是废物管理效率低下。废物处理不当会导致各种健康危害，并影响周围的空气和水。可以建立机器对机器或机器对人（M2M）系统，以实现更智能的废物分类和处理。垃圾桶或垃圾箱可以内置传感器来测量垃圾量。一旦垃圾桶装满，信号收发器就会通过互联网或卫星向中央指挥中心发送带有 GPS 位置和 IP 地址的消息。
Use of such Industrial IoT solutions and devices for waste management helps in determining the best time to collect the wastes and figuring out better routes for the collection trucks handling the potential waste build up scenario in cities.
IoT-based waste management systems are getting traction worldwide
Such smart waste management systems can also help in identifying the different types of waste, such as domestic or commercial, and dividing them based on their degrading ability and processes. This would help in proper disposal for all kind of waste causing less environmental issues and keep track of the ever-growing issue of e-waste management.
SeWatch, a wastewater and sewerage wireless monitoring system provides a system-wide reporting solution for combined sewer overflow and sanitary sewer overflow discharge or overflow. Water level sensors for sewer system manholes relay information to an application running on a PC or server which alerts on computer screen or via SMS about manhole overflow and spill-over.
SeWatch 是一种废水和污水无线监控系统，可为组合下水道溢流和卫生下水道溢流排放或溢流提供全系统报告解决方案。 用于下水道系统检修孔的水位传感器将信息传递给运行在 PC 或服务器上的应用程序，该应用程序在计算机屏幕上或通过 SMS 发出有关检修孔溢出和溢出的警报。
很棒的例子（A Shining Example）
China has come up with a “Sensing China” strategy. It is an environmental protection and overall industrial pollution control system featuring real-time data perception, resource concentration and sharing, system integration as well as effective supervision and decision-making that established to improve the environment and prevent environmental accidents.
The specific tasks include intelligent sensors and automatic monitoring devices, wireless monitoring for pollution treatment, water quality data monitoring, air monitoring system, and regional ecological monitoring.
Connected devices promise to be the major drivers of change within the coming few years. With higher demands for this technology from both public and private sector for better energy distribution, accurate business forecasts, the fruits of Green IT and an answer to many of the environment challenges faced by the region, the overall production gains is expected to shoot up.
联网设备有望成为未来几年内变革的主要驱动力。随着公共和私营部门对这项技术的更高需求，以实现更好的能源分配、准确的业务预测、绿色 IT 的成果以及对该地区面临的许多环境挑战的解决方案，预计整体生产收益将激增。
Of course, new technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence, will emerge making IoT more intuitive and user friendly, but largely, manufacturers will have to work harder at securing their connected devices as the risk to data will also increase. Amid all of these trends and predictions, the future ahead is definitely a promising one and certainly worth looking forward to.