物联网对可持续发展的影响

The Internet of Things (IoT) is currently trending with its ever expanding eco-system of digital sensors, appliances and wearable smart devices. Like other sectors, the role of IoT in sustainable development and environment protection will be crucial in the coming years.

物联网(IoT)目前正以其不断扩展的数字传感器、电器和可穿戴智能设备生态系统成为趋势。与其他行业一样,物联网在可持续发展和环境保护方面的作用在未来几年将至关重要。

Environmental degradation is occurring all over the world. Land degradation, deforestation and desertification pose a growing threat to food security and water availability. Widespread loss of biological diversity is undermining the productive capacity of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This reduces access to essential environmental goods and services, including vital ecological processes such as water purification, nutrient cycling, control of pollution and soil erosion. Environmental degradation exacerbates the frequency and impact of droughts, floods, forest fires and other natural hazards.

环境恶化正在世界各地发生。土地退化、森林砍伐和荒漠化对粮食安全和水资源供应构成越来越大的威胁。生物多样性的广泛丧失正在破坏陆地和水生生态系统的生产能力。这减少了获得基本环境产品和服务的机会,包括重要的生态过程,如水净化、养分循环、污染控制和土壤侵蚀。环境退化加剧了干旱、洪水、森林火灾和其他自然灾害的频率和影响。

Let us explore how IoT is making a positive impact on sustainable development across different sectors.

让我们一起探讨物联网在不同行业中能够给可持续发展产生的积极影响。

1. 水资源管理(Water Management)

IoT enables understanding of changes in water quality of a particular reservoir. The connection of different sensors and monitoring systems help in providing the water level and flood warnings as well as foresee other disasters such as earthquakes and potential landslides in prone areas, assisting the civilians and authorities to take drastic action on such issues.

物联网可以了解特定水库的水质变化。不同传感器和监测系统的连接有助于提供水位和洪水警报,并预测易发地区的地震和潜在山体滑坡等其他灾害,协助平民和当局对此类问题采取严厉行动。

2. 农业(Agriculture)

Smart and adaptive irrigation and agriculture systems in which the soil water content and nutrients are continuously tracked and appropriate actions are taken on the reported deficiency or damage are also gaining huge popularity among the farming communities.

持续跟踪土壤含水量和养分情况,并对报告的缺陷或损害采取适当行动的智能和适应性灌溉和农业系统也在农业社区中广受欢迎。

3. 野生动物(Wildlife)

IoT also allow real time detection of animals. In case of any disease outbreaks, it will be useful for control, survey and prevention of such scenarios. For this, the livestock would be fitted with special chips (RFID) and readers would for placed in the designated monitoring spots.

物联网还允许实时检测动物。在任何疾病爆发的情况下,它将有助于控制、调查和预防此类情况。为此,牲畜将安装特殊芯片(RFID),读取器将放置在指定的监控点。

Applications like eBird helps the scientists in keeping tracks of birds as well as their habits and migration patterns. Systems that triggers alert on uncontrolled deforestation and potential wildfires can also help the respective authorities to protect and maintain the forests and its inhabitants.

像 eBird 这样的应用程序,能够帮助科学家们跟踪鸟类并观察它们的习性和迁徙规律。对不受控制的森林砍伐和潜在野火发出警报的系统也可以帮助相关当局保护和维护森林及其居民。

4. 海洋生物(Marine Organisms)

Overfishing and over- exploitation of aquatic diversity is endangering high-value species like salmon and cod. ThisFish, an internet tracking network in association with local bodies help to trace back the fish to the fisherman who caught it and the location through GPS readings and toll data. In this way bad fishing behaviors can be detected and stopped.

过度捕捞和过度开发水生多样性正在危及鲑鱼和鳕鱼等高价值物种。ThisFish 是一个与当地机构合作的互联网跟踪网络,有助于通过 GPS 读数和通行费数据将这条鱼追溯到捕获它的渔民和位置。通过这种方式,可以检测并阻止不良的捕鱼行为。

FishPal provides reports on the type and quantity of fishes caught on a daily and monthly that can be checked by the fisheries department and also informs suspicious fishing activities.

FishPal 提供每日和每月捕获的鱼类类型和数量的报告,可供渔业部门检查,并通知可疑的捕鱼活动。

5. 建筑(Buildings)

Those who dismissed smart home technology as unrealistic playthings for lazy youngsters are increasingly finding it hard to resist the charms of IoT-powered smart home devices. These devices will become hugely popular in the coming years as they become highly intuitive and innovative, extending to not just home automation comfort but also home security and the safety of your family. That is the kind of home sustainability that will keep the power consumption in check and make optimal use of renewable energy.

那些将智能家居技术视为懒惰年轻人不切实际的玩物的人,越来越发现难以抗拒物联网驱动的智能家居设备的魅力。这些设备将在未来几年变得非常流行,因为它们变得非常直观和创新,不仅扩展到家庭自动化的舒适性,还扩展到家庭安全和家人的安全。这是一种家庭可持续性,可以控制电力消耗并优化利用可再生能源。

Even smart workplaces with Green Design are contributing highly towards energy conservation. With maximum use of daylight, rainwater capture, smart cooling and ventilation systems, solar power etc ensure maximum efficiency in power use and full utilization to renewable sources.

即使 Green Design 智能工作场所是高度促进实现节能减排。具有最大利用日光,雨水捕获,智能冷却和通风系统,太阳能发电等确保在电源使用最高的效率和充分利用,可再生能源。

6. 固废管理(Waste Management)

One of the major issues faced in the urban areas is the inefficient waste management. Improper disposal of waste can cause various health hazards and affect the surrounding air and water. The machine-to-machine or machine-to-man (M2M) systems can be established for a much intelligent division and disposal of waste. The trash cans or the dumpsters can have built-in sensors to measure the amount of trash. Once the trash is full, the signal transceiver sends a message to the central command centre via internet or satellite with the GPS location and the IP address.

城市地区面临的主要问题之一是废物管理效率低下。废物处理不当会导致各种健康危害,并影响周围的空气和水。可以建立机器对机器或机器对人(M2M)系统,以实现更智能的废物分类和处理。垃圾桶或垃圾箱可以内置传感器来测量垃圾量。一旦垃圾桶装满,信号收发器就会通过互联网或卫星向中央指挥中心发送带有 GPS 位置和 IP 地址的消息。

Use of such Industrial IoT solutions and devices for waste management helps in determining the best time to collect the wastes and figuring out better routes for the collection trucks handling the potential waste build up scenario in cities.

使用此类工业物联网解决方案和设备进行废物管理有助于确定收集废物的最佳时间,并为处理城市中潜在废物堆积情况的收集卡车找出更好的路线。

IoT-based waste management systems are getting traction worldwide

Such smart waste management systems can also help in identifying the different types of waste, such as domestic or commercial, and dividing them based on their degrading ability and processes. This would help in proper disposal for all kind of waste causing less environmental issues and keep track of the ever-growing issue of e-waste management.

这种智能废物管理系统还可以帮助识别不同类型的废物,例如家庭或商业废物,并根据其降解能力和过程进行分类。这将有助于妥善处理各种造成较少环境问题的废物,并跟踪不断增长的电子废物管理问题。

7. 废水(Wastewater)

SeWatch, a wastewater and sewerage wireless monitoring system provides a system-wide reporting solution for combined sewer overflow and sanitary sewer overflow discharge or overflow. Water level sensors for sewer system manholes relay information to an application running on a PC or server which alerts on computer screen or via SMS about manhole overflow and spill-over.

SeWatch 是一种废水和污水无线监控系统,可为组合下水道溢流和卫生下水道溢流排放或溢流提供全系统报告解决方案。 用于下水道系统检修孔的水位传感器将信息传递给运行在 PC 或服务器上的应用程序,该应用程序在计算机屏幕上或通过 SMS 发出有关检修孔溢出和溢出的警报。

很棒的例子(A Shining Example)

China has come up with a “Sensing China” strategy. It is an environmental protection and overall industrial pollution control system featuring real-time data perception, resource concentration and sharing, system integration as well as effective supervision and decision-making that established to improve the environment and prevent environmental accidents.

中国提出了“感知中国”战略。它是为改善环境、预防环境事故而建立的数据实时感知、资源集中共享、系统集成、监督决策有效的环境保护和工业污染整体控制系统。

The specific tasks include intelligent sensors and automatic monitoring devices, wireless monitoring for pollution treatment, water quality data monitoring, air monitoring system, and regional ecological monitoring.

具体任务包括智能传感器和自动监测装置、污染治理无线监测、水质数据监测、空气监测系统、区域生态监测等。

结论(Conclusion)

Connected devices promise to be the major drivers of change within the coming few years. With higher demands for this technology from both public and private sector for better energy distribution, accurate business forecasts, the fruits of Green IT and an answer to many of the environment challenges faced by the region, the overall production gains is expected to shoot up.

联网设备有望成为未来几年内变革的主要驱动力。随着公共和私营部门对这项技术的更高需求,以实现更好的能源分配、准确的业务预测、绿色 IT 的成果以及对该地区面临的许多环境挑战的解决方案,预计整体生产收益将激增。

Of course, new technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence, will emerge making IoT more intuitive and user friendly, but largely, manufacturers will have to work harder at securing their connected devices as the risk to data will also increase. Amid all of these trends and predictions, the future ahead is definitely a promising one and certainly worth looking forward to.

当然,人工智能等新技术将会出现,使物联网更加直观和用户友好,但在很大程度上,制造商将不得不更加努力地保护其连接设备,因为数据风险也会增加。在所有这些趋势和预测中,未来无疑是充满希望的,当然值得期待。


原文链接:Impact of IoT on Sustainable Development

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